Lee Erwin went closest for Latics on the hour mark as he smashed the crossbar from 25 yards on the volley.
Latics continued to press as Ollie Banks forced Reice Charles-Cook into saves but they could not find the decisive goal.
The result means Latics record their fifth clean sheet in nine league games and sit 19th in Sky Bet League One.
Manager Stephen Robinson made three changes to his starting 11 from last week as Freddie Ladapo returned from injury, Brian Wilson returned in defence and Banks was preferred in midfield.
It would be Latics who started brightly as Marc Klok’s short corner found Paul Green in the penalty box, he tumbled in the penalty area under a challenge from a Coventry City man but his penalty request was denied.
The home side had the first shot of the game on eight minutes but goalkeeper Connor Ripley comfortably saved his effort.
Latics almost took the lead five minutes later as Ladapo raced through on goal, he was forced slightly wide but managed to get a shot away which was tipped wide by Coventry stopper Charles-Cook.
After striker Marvin Sordell fired wide from inside the box, Jodi Jones felt he should have been awarded a penalty but Charles Dunne defended well to shepherd the ball behind for a Latics goal kick.
Jones was a threat on the right hand side and shaped a shot wide midway through the half as Coventry dominated possession.
However, whilst they were in control of the ball, Latics were very good out of possession and constantly forced the home side into mistakes.
Erwin won a corner just after the half hour mark which Klok took. He whipped the ball into the box and it was cleared towards Green on the edge to strike but his strike flew over the crossbar.
Approaching half time, Green received the first booking of the game after he tugged back Marcus Tudgay midway through Athletic’s half.
Both sides had opportunities to take the lead before the break. Latics were the first to go close as Josh Law crossed to an unmarked Ladapo but he could not take the ball in his path and the chance was lost.
On the stroke of half time, Coventry should have taken the lead through Tudgay.
The striker, who was stood six yards out in the centre of the goal, headed wide of Ripley’s goal.
Coventry midfielder Vladimir Gadzhev was cautioned a minute before the break whilst Law tested the palms of the Coventry goalkeeper as the referee blew for half time.
Both Gadzhev and Law were replaced at the break as Lee Croft came on for Latics whilst Ruben Lameiras came on for the Sky Blues.
Latics had the first opportunity of the second half after Charles Dunne won the ball on the left and released Klok to strike but Charles-Cook tipped his effort from inside the box past the post.
There was a lengthy stoppage as Jamie Sterry took a nasty knock to the head and the game was halted for over five minutes.
Whilst the following corner came to nothing, Latics were inches away from taking the lead before the hour mark as Erwin rattled the crossbar.
Croft fed Wilson on the right and he knocked the ball back to Erwin but his sweet strike from just outside the box smashed against the bar and went over.
That chance caused Latics to have their best spell of the game as they bombarded Charles-Cook’s goal.
Banks won the ball from a throw in, played the ball to Erwin and the Leeds loanee found the midfielder who had continued his run into the box but his shot was saved by the Coventry goalkeeper.
A minute later, Green shaped a shot towards the top corner which fell inches over the crossbar as Latics continued to try and force the opening goal.
Banks again had an opportunity from the edge of the box after Ladapo’s cut back but he struck over the crossbar.
Robinson made a change and brought Darius Osei into the action and the striker made an immediate impact.
He chased down a loose ball, won possession and raced forward, only to be stopped by the last defender.
His hold up play on the edge of the box was excellent and he received the ball on 70 minutes but his shot was blocked wide for a corner.
Whilst that was cleared, Latics continued their spell of dominance continued with Banks again forcing Charles-Cook into a low save after good work from Osei.
Ryan Flynn was introduced with 10 minutes remaining, replacing Klok.
Latics had to be wary of the counter attack as Sordell headed over the crossbar on 84 minutes and Cameron Burgess was forced into some excellent defending with minutes remaining.
As Tudgay got in front of him, Burgess managed to get his leg back over the ball and divert the danger away.
Athletic passed the ball around freely and almost carved open their opponents in the final minute of normal time as Banks, Green and Croft combined but Erwin’s effort was saved.
As the fourth official indicated eight minutes additional time, the hosts started to up the pressure but without really troubling Latics.
Jones’ free kick from 20 yards was the only dangerous moment but Latics held on to keep a clean sheet and come away with a respectable point.
Coventry City: Charles-Cook, Willis, Turnbull, Bigirimana, Jones, Reid, Gadzhev (Lameiras 46’), Page, Sordell, Tudgay, Sterry (Kelly-Evans 53’).
Subs not used: Burge, Agyei, Ricketts, Wright, Stevenson.
Oldham Athletic: Ripley, Wilson, Clarke, Burgess, Law (Croft 46’), Dunne, Klok (Flynn 80’), Green, Banks, Ladapo (Osei 67’), Erwin.
Subs not used: Kettings, Dummigan, McLaughlin, Mckay.
Goals: Coventry City 0-0 Oldham Athletic
Attendance: 8,813 (453 visiting supporters)