An experienced and highly regarded coach, Robinson joins from Motherwell having recently been the first team coach with Northern Ireland in France during Euro 2016.
The 41-year-old will leave his role as assistant manager at Motherwell and with the Northern Irish set up to fully concentrate on his new role with Oldham Athletic.
After a playing career most notably with AFC Bournemouth and Luton Town, and gaining seven international caps, Robinson made the transition into coaching with the Northern Ireland under 16s.
He quickly gained a reputation as a top coach, working with the Northern Irish under 17s, 19s and 21s before being appointed first team coach in the current set up under Michael O’Neill.
Robinson was an integral part of Northern Ireland’s Euro 2016 campaign which saw them beat Ukraine and earn a place in the Last 16 of the competition.
Speaking about the appointment, chairman Simon Corney said: “We are delighted to welcome Steve to the club as our first team manager.
"He has a wealth of experience, both at club and international level and impressed me and the board straight away.
“He has an outstanding reputation in the game and we believe his dynamic, methodical and thorough approach will quickly translate into success on the pitch.
“In addition, he has identified and begun recruiting players whom he believes will excite our supporters and demonstrate the strong work ethic and attractive style of play he demands.
“He has also been drawing on the extensive knowledge of Sean O’Driscoll and Lee Turnbull and has already identified additional staff he would like to bring in. We will be formally announcing these appointments in the coming days.”
Manager Robinson added: “When I came down here, I felt like this was the right club to join. I really like what the owner said to me.
"He sold me his ideas and ambitions and I had demands of my own which I wanted to be met to give me the best opportunity to be successful. He has been really good with that and it’s an exciting time for the football club.
"I’m more than ready for this job. It’s a club that has massive tradition and I want to get an identity back to the club, take the club forward and hopefully we can move forward together.
"Oldham Athletic has managed to stay in this division for a long time now, and now is the time to kick it on.
"It is important to put a structure in place which secures the future of the club, brings young players through, puts energy, pace and enthusiasm into the club and that’s what I intend doing.”
Oldham Athletic would like to thank Motherwell for their professional conduct throughout this process.
A press conference will take place early next week to formally introduce Steve as manager.